the foundation of alexandria

It comes from The Life of Alexander of Macedon (Longmans, Green and Co. 1955) by an unknown author named Pseudo-Callisthenes. [1] Yet, before that, there were some big port cities just east of Alexandria, at the western edge of what is now Abu Qir Bay. [26.8] Since there was no chalk available, they used barley-meal to describe a rounded area on the dark soil, to whose inner arc straight lines succeeded, starting from what might be called the skirts of the area and narrowing the breadth uniformly, so as to produce the figure of a mantle. One of the ways we do that is by helping students attain college degrees. Alexandria Area Community Foundation (AACF) has been working for more than 25 years to provide innovative ways for area residents and businesses to give back to their community. In 616, the city was taken by Khosrau II, King of Persia. According to historian Cassius Dio, over 20,000 people were killed. [31][32][33], For the history of the city of Alexandria in Virginia, United States, see. The Footnotes tell me that Curtius, Diodorus and Justin ‘follow the tradition of Aristobulus… in placing the foundation of … Years later, the city suffered many earthquakes during the years 956, 1303 and then in 1323. Just east of Alexandria in ancient times (where now is Abu Qir Bay) there was marshland and several islands. Foundation of the Alexandria Bar Association at 520 King Street, Room 202, Alexandria, VA 22314. In 365, a tsunami caused by an earthquake in Crete hit Alexandria.[16][17]. 1,100 pages of text and notes cannot change the fact that 'the development of Alexandria as a city largely escapes us'. Jews occupied two of the city's five quarters and worshipped at synagogues. [26.5] when during the night, as he was sleeping, he saw a remarkable vision. The Donations of Alexandria (Autumn 34 BC) were a political act by Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony in which they distributed lands held by Rome and Parthia amongst Cleopatra's children, and granted them many titles, especially for Caesarion, son of Julius Caesar. The Foundation of Alexandria Historia Alexandri Magni: Book 7.1 - 8.4 Alexander: Books XXVI - XXVIII Plutarch Quintus Curtius Rufus Traveled to the shrine of Ammon first, linked himself to Jupiter Alexandria was positioned between a lake and the sea Left men to supervise the [9], The early Ptolemies were careful to maintain the distinction of its population's three largest ethnicities: Greek, Jewish, and Egyptian. This city will always pursue you. Large sections of the city were damaged in the battle, or destroyed in subsequent fires. From the time of annexation and onwards, Alexandria seemed to have regained its old prosperity, commanding, as it did, an important granary of Rome. [7] Nominally a free Hellenistic city, Alexandria retained its senate of Roman times and the judicial functions of that body were restored by Septimius Severus after temporary abolition by Augustus. Even as its main historical importance had sprung from pagan learning, Alexandria now acquired new importance as a center of Christian theology and church government. The foundation of the city of Alexandria, detail of the fresco History of Pope Alexander III by Spinello Aretino , Palazzo Pubblico, Siena, Tuscany, Italy. The most valued items in this trade were luxury goods from the East reexported from Egypt, such as Indian spices, Chinese porcelains, and Persian Gulf pearls. In the year 1365, Alexandria was brutally sacked after being taken by the armies of the Crusaders, led by King Peter of Cyprus. Mayors of Alexandria (since the implementation of the local-government act of 1960):[28]. Alexandria figured prominently in the military operations of Napoleon's expedition to Egypt in 1798. (At first, Egyptians were probably the plurality of residents, while the Jewish community remained small. A great assortment of countries had agents in the city, although the European trade was dominated by merchants from the city-states of northern Italy, principally Venetians, Genoese, Florentines, and Pisans. A number of more fanciful foundation myths are found in the Alexander Romance and were picked up by medieval historians. Nearly two centuries later, between the years 814 and 827, Alexandria came under the control of pirates of Andalusia (Spain today), later to return to Arab hands. 32–42. 594 likes. Nothing, however, could better signify this change than the placing of Alexandria's tomb within the city. In 215 AD the emperor Caracalla visited the city and, because of some insulting satires that the inhabitants had directed at him, abruptly commanded his troops to put to death all youths capable of bearing arms[citation needed]. European merchants in their turn sold wood, furs, cloth, and slaves in Alexandria. Notably, there were few references to Egypt or native Egyptians in Alexandrian poetry; one of the few references to native Egyptians presents them as "muggers. Mohammed Ali, the Ottoman Governor of Egypt, began rebuilding the city around 1810, and by 1850, Alexandria had returned to something akin to its former glory. The first Anglican missionaries arrived in Egypt in 1819, and the first church building, St Mark's in Alexandria, was consecrated in 1839, followed by All Saints in Cairo in 1876. The city fell to the Arabs in AD 641, and a new capital of Egypt, Fustat, was founded on the Nile. Jacob, Christian, & François de Polignac, eds. The donors to the Foundation met this challenge. [26.3] If what the Alexandrians say on the authority of Heracleides is true, then it seems that Homer was no idle or useless companion to him on his expedition. there’s no ship for you, there’s no road. Taking a hard look at the facts about the Library of Alexandria, there is much we do not know. General & Rehabilitative Health Care. The city grew in the early 19th century under the industrialization program of Mohammad Ali, the viceroy of Egypt. The Alexandria Education Foundation (AEF) has made the decision to postpone the 2020 Hall of Fame. Foundation. Det förmodas att det grundlades omkring 280 f.Kr. Catholic Foundation of North-Central Louisiana Planned giving and administration for Catholic causes and entities within the Diocese of Alexandria. Given the current restrictions on large gatherings and the heightened health risk of COVID-19 the Board of Directors felt it was in the best interest for all to not hold a large gathering this … One of the more sober descriptions, given by the historian Arrian, tells how Alexander undertook to lay out the city's general plan, but lacking chalk or other means, resorted to sketching it out with grain. All rights reserved. The Greek author Plutarch of Chaeronea, describes the event in section 26.3-10 of his Life of Alexander. The reign of Ptolemy VIII Physcon from 144–116 BC was marked by purges and civil warfare (including the expulsion of intellectuals such as Apollodorus of Athens), as well as intrigues associated with the king's wives and sons. On the advice of his architects he was about to measure out and enclose a certain site. [11], The law in Alexandria was based on Greek—especially Attic—law. Part of Canopus is still on the shore above water, and had been studied by archaeologists the longest. Denna artikel handlar om det antika biblioteket. [26.7] When he saw that the site was eminently suitable (it is a strip of land similar to a fairly broad isthmus, running between a large lagoon and the sea which terminates in a great harbor), he exclaimed that Homer was admirable in other respects and was also an excellent architect, and ordered the plan of the city to be drawn in conformity with the terrain. Christine Favard-Meeks & Dimitri Meeks, "The heir of the Delta"; in Jacob & de Polignac (1992/2000); pp. Leaving Siwah, Alexander rode north-east to the Egyptian delta where he founded the city that would become Alexandria-Outside-Egypt. City Quarters. The Ptolemies fostered the development of the Library of Alexandria and associated Musaeum into a renowned center for Hellenistic learning. The city received no aid from Constantinople during that time; Heraclius was dead and the new Emperor Constans II was barely twelve years old. Workshops and street-front stores as well as private dwellings complement the depictions in literary sources of the city's varied commercial and social life. Publically the Alexandria Foundation is a philanthropic, non-profit organization dedicated to the “preservation of the human experience”. [4] The site also offered unique protection against invading armies: the vast Libyan Desert to the west and the Nile Delta to the east. A few months after the foundation, Alexander left Egypt for the East and never returned to his city. Unexpected discoveries from the inhabited quarter include frescoes and other wall decorations that provide clear evidence for the development of Coptic artistic forms in a cosmopolitan urban setting—not just in the chora of Middle and Upper Egypt. (1992/2000). You’ll walk the same streets, grow old Walter Scheidel, "Creating a Metropolis: A Comparative Demographic Perspective"; in Harris & Ruffini (2004), p. 23. The third award to the museum is from Alexandria Area Community Foundation’s Alexandria Area Response and Recovery Grant, in the amount of … While in Alexandria, Octavian took time to visit Alexander's tomb and inspected the late king's remains. After a long decline, Alexandria emerged as major metropolis at the time of the Crusades and lived a flourishing period due to trade with agreements with the Aragonese, Genoese and Venetians who distributed the products arrived from the East through the Red Sea. Two French savants assessing the population of Alexandria in 1798 estimated 8,000 and 15,000.[25]. In the 3rd century AD, Alexander's tomb was closed to the public, and now its location has been forgotten. )[10] Alexandrian Greeks placed an emphasis on Hellenistic culture, in part to exclude and subjugate non-Greeks. These processions were used to shout Greek superiority over any non-Greeks that were watching, thereby widening the divide between cultures.[13]. Behind it were five villages scattered along the strip between Lake Mareotis and the sea, according to the Romance of Alexander. Alexander's tomb became a famous tourist destination for ancient travelers (including Julius Caesar). The French army under Napoleon captured the city in 1798 and the British soon captured it from the French, retaining Alexandria within their sphere of influence for 150 years. Persecution of Christians under Diocletian (beginning in AD 284) marks the beginning of the Era of Martyrs in the Coptic calendar.[15]. ", Reimer (1997), p. 23. "The true extent of our ignorance about the most fundamental demographic features of Alexandria is well brought out by Fraser's massive tomes on the history of the city under the Ptolemies. Their support has been crucial in getting the foundation off to … För den moderna institutionen, se Bibliotheca Alexandrina.. Biblioteket i Alexandria var under antiken det största biblioteket i världen och gjorde Alexandria till ett ledande lärdomscentrum. Ancient accounts are extremely numerous and varied, and much influenced by subsequent developments. Alexandria Education Foundation awarded grant to support school meals for students in need October 13, 2020; Virtual Celebration of Hall of Fame Inductees from the past 13 years September 22, 2020; Alexandria Education Foundation Postpones Hall of Fame Event August 20, 2020 In a century, Alexandria had become the largest city in the world,[6] and for some centuries more, was second only to Rome. Company Description. Alexandria was an oddity, a kind of cultural non sequitur—a Greek city run by Greeks, set in an alien cultural landscape with which it had little in common. In July 1882 the city was the site of the first battle of the Anglo-Egyptian War, when it was bombarded and occupied by British naval forces. Alexandria was intended to supersede the older Greek colony of Naucratis as a Hellenistic centre in Egypt, and to be the link between Greece and the rich Nile valley. You won’t find a new country, won’t find another shore. Ancient accounts are extremely numerous and varied, and much influenced by subsequent developments. The Pharos and Heptastadium quarters, however, remained populous and were left intact. She had a voracious appetite for knowledge and … Now that you’ve wasted your life here, in this small corner, From Constantine P. Cavafy, "The City" (1910), translated by Edmund Keeley, Alexandria was the home of the ethnically Greek poet Constantine P. Cavafy. "I suspect that despite their lack of civic status, Egyptians were presumably more numerous than any other group. Among other things, we do not know how many people were initially settled at the site; how their numbers changed over time; where successive generations of immigrants came from; and what the maximum size of the population was, or when it was reached. By Jeremy McInerney, PhD, University of Pennsylvania According to the myth of Alexandria’s construction, Alexander the Great himself was responsible for the city’s foundation. Strabo lists Alexandria, with Tarsus and Athens, among the learned cities of the world, observing also that Alexandria both admits foreign scholars and sends its natives abroad for further education. Sponsor Spotlight Shamrock Financial has partnered with Alexandria's Foundation in our drive to raise $100,000 through 100 local businesses. This was one of the chief reasons that induced Octavian to place it directly under imperial power. The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, Venice has eliminated the jurisdiction and its Alexandrian warehouse became the center of the distribution of spices to the Portuguese Cape route to open in 1498, which marks the commercial decline, worsened by the Turkish invasion. Once among the greatest cities of the Mediterranean world and a center of Hellenic scholarship and science, Alexandria was the capital of Egypt from its founding by Alexander the Great in 332 BCE until its surrender to Arab forces in 642 CE. The Alexandria Hospital Foundation The Alexandria Hospital Foundation Overview. Date Founded. Stiros, Stathis C.: "The AD 365 Crete earthquake and possible seismic clustering during the fourth to sixth centuries AD in the Eastern Mediterranean: a review of historical and archaeological data", Haas (1997), pp. ' Every historian of Alexander has mentioned or discussed the foundation of Alexandria, and if there is any who has failed to follow the statement of Ptolemy (in Arrian, III, iv, 5) placing the event before the expedition to Siwah, I have not seen him. This brutal order seems to have been carried out even beyond the letter, for a general massacre ensued. Only a few months later, Alexandria's Manshia Square was the site of the famous, failed assassination attempt on the life of Gamal Abdel Nasser. Library of Alexandria Nineteenth-century artistic rendering of the Library of Alexandria by the German artist O. In 391, Emperor Theodosius I ordered the destruction of all pagan temples, and the Patriarch Theophilus complied with his request. "This quarter is especially noteworthy as it provides our first archaeological window onto urban life in late antique Alexandria. After Alexander's departure, his viceroy Cleomenes continued the expansion. It formed an emirate of the Ayyubid Empire, where Saladin's elder brother Turan Shah was granted a sinecure to keep him from the front lines of the crusades. The Spirit of Alexandria Foundation supports all of the things important to Alexandria Bennett - the wonder of nature, the quest for knowledge, the potential of life and the beauty and interest in everything around us. [18][19] The neoplatonist philosopher Hypatia was publicly murdered by a Christian mob. [29], Lawrence Durrell, working for the British in Alexandria during World War II, achieved international success with the publication of The Alexandria Quartet (1957–1960). The remains found at this site, which are dated circa the fourth to seventh centuries AD, include workshops, storefronts, houses, a theater, a public bath, and lecture halls, as well as Coptic frescoes. We’ve no way of knowing to what extent the Greek population penetrated into the hinterland, although we do know that Egypt was divided into regions known as nomes each with its own capital. At the same time, the city could enjoy a fresh water supply by means of a canal from the Nile. Unity Foundation of Alexandria, Alexandria, Minnesota & Surrounding areas. [26.10] But his seers advised him there was nothing to fear (in their view the city he was founding would abound in resources and would sustain men from every nation); he therefore instructed his overseers to press on with the work. These clashes culminated in the Egyptian coup of 1952, during which the army occupied Alexandria and drove King Farouk from his residence at Montaza Palace.[27]. [12] There were two institutions in Alexandria devoted to the preservation and study of Greek culture, which helped to exclude non-Greeks. For the other posts in the series, click here The following account of the foundation of Alexandria is not historical. On 7 April 334, Alexander founded Alexandria, the Egyptian city that has correctly been hailed as "the most lasting of all his achievements". Home » Sources » Content » Plutarch » Plutarch's Alexander » Plutarch on the foundation of Alexandria, About Pictures Sources Countries Languages Categories Tags Thanks FAQ Donate Contact Articles Stubs. "Nevertheless, throughout most of the period of the Mamluk sultanate (1250–1517), the city of Alexandria was a busy entrepôt for trade between Egypt and Europe. 17–18. It became the main Greek city of Egypt, with an extraordinary mix of Greeks from many cities and backgrounds. Slavery, a normal institution in Greece, was likely present but details about its extent and about the identity of slaves are unknown. Jewish–Greek ethnic tensions in the era of Roman administration led to riots in AD 38 and again in 66. We don’t even know if the Library of Alexandria was destroyed at all, due to contradictory texts and the absence of archaeological remains. [26.9] The king was delighted with the plan, when suddenly a vast multitude of birds of every kind and size flew from the river and the lagoon on to the site like clouds; nothing was left of the barley-meal and even Alexander was much troubled by the omen. This page was created in 2002; last modified on 14 July 2020. In July 1954, the city was a target of an Israeli bombing campaign that later became known as the Lavon Affair. After Alexander departed, his viceroy, Cleomenes, continued the expansion of the city. Through a competitive scholarship process, the Foundation financially supports students in the transition from high school to 2 and 4-year colleges. The Greek author Plutarch of Chaeronea, describes the event in section 26.3-10 of his Life of … Alexandria ligger i Nedre Egypten vid Nilens västra arm i den nordvästra delen av Nildeltat på ett näs mellan Medelhavet och bräckvattensjön Marioutsjön och ligger cirka 220 km nordväst om huvudstaden Kairo.. Staden sträcker sig cirka 20 km [4] längs kusten och har en area om cirka 300 km². Walter Scheidel, "Creating a Metropolis: A Comparative Demographic Perspective"; in Harris & Ruffini (2004), p. 2. Julius Caesar dallied with Cleopatra in Alexandria in 47 BC and was besieged in the city by Cleopatra's brother and rival. As native influences began to reassert themselves in the Nile valley, Alexandria gradually became an alien city, more and more detached from Egypt and losing much of its commerce as the peace of the empire broke up during the 3rd century, followed by a fast decline in population and splendor. On the mainland, life seemed to have centered in the vicinity of the Serapeum and Caesareum, both which became Christian churches. Headquarters. The Spirit of Alexandria Foundation was created to carry on the legacy of Alexandria Bennett, a little girl whose passion for nature and generosity was evident to everyone around her. There has been a persistent belief that the Library of Alexandria and its contents were destroyed in 642 during the Arab invasion.[19][18]. Following Antony's defeat at the Battle of Actium, Octavian took Egypt as personal property of the emperor, appointing a prefect who reported personally to him rather than to the Roman Senate[citation needed]. French troops stormed the city on July 2, 1798 and it remained in their hands until the British victory at the Battle of Alexandria on March 21, 1801, following which the British besieged the city which fell to them on 2 September 1801. Foundation of the Alexandria Bar Association. The typical grant award is up to $5,000, but larger awards have been bestowed to projects judged to be of high need or merit. Staden är huvudort i det cirka 2 679 km² [5] stora guvernementet Alexandria. in the same neighborhoods, turn gray in these same houses. Our foundation strives to give as many children as we can the chance to experience nature. We hope to spread our mission and programs to other nature centers in Michigan and beyond. The Heptastadion connected Pharos with the city and the Lighthouse of Alexandria followed soon after, as did the Serapeum, all under Ptolemy I. Recorded in Plutarch, the foundation story gives us some idea of what the Alexandrians, and particularly the Ptolemies, wanted to project about their city’s birth. The dynasty and capital, built upon such a prestigious relic, could, more than any other, claim to hold up and preserve the universal vision that attached to a royalty inherited from the deceased. "[11] There were ostentatious religious processions in the streets that displayed the wealth and power of the Ptolemies, but also celebrated and affirmed Greekness. The Lighthouse was destroyed by earthquakes in the 14th century,[22] and by 1700 the city was just a small town amidst the ruins. Researchers also revealed a small gold artifact and three thin sheets of gold. Alexandria, Louisiana. Charitable Causes. Inheriting the trade of ruined Tyre and becoming the center of the new commerce between Europe and the Arabian and Indian East, the city grew in less than a generation to be larger than Carthage. In literature, non-Greek texts entered the library only once they had been translated into Greek. You’ll always end up in this city. The Brucheum and Jewish quarters were desolate in the 5th century, and the central monuments, the Soma and Museum, fell into ruin. Although the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius recovered it a few years later, in 641 the Arabs, under the general Amr ibn al-As during the Muslim conquest of Egypt, captured it decisively after a siege that lasted fourteen months. A number of more fanciful foun… 20–29. Alexandria Education Foundation awarded grant to support school meals for students in need October 13, 2020; Virtual Celebration of Hall of Fame Inductees from the past 13 years September 22, 2020; Alexandria Education Foundation Postpones Hall of Fame Event August 20, 2020 Temples and statues were destroyed throughout the Roman empire: pagan rituals became forbidden under punishment of death, and libraries were closed. The Canopic (westernmost) branch of the Nile Delta still existed at that time, and was widely used for shipping. Alexandria was founded by Alexander the Great in 331 BC (the exact date is disputed) as Ἀλεξάνδρεια (Aleksándreia). What it looked like, its exact location, precisely how many books it held, if it burnt, and who destroyed it. In 2000, with the opening of the Charles E. Beatley, Jr. Central Library, the Library asked the City to add $50,000 to its operating budg… An elegant theaterlike structure was uncovered, along with a large imperial bath complex and lecture halls, the latter being unprecedented archaeological evidence for the city's intellectual reputation. Walter Scheidel, "Creating a Metropolis: A Comparative Demographic Perspective"; in Harris & Ruffini (2004), p. 25. Chartered in 1998, the Alexandria Library Foundation, Inc. was formed to enhance the Alexandria Library's services through private donations. An Egyptian city or town, Rhakotis, existed on the shore where Alexandria is now. 8110 GATEHOUSE RD STE 400W FALLS CHURCH VA 22042-1254. The ancient sources tell us that Alexander himself chose the sites of the temples; this applied to the Greek temples and also the Egyptian, in that he selected the place where a temple to Isis was to be conslrucled. Within the next 3-5 years the goal for Alexandria's Nature Bus will be to have additional themes (Michigan Mammals and Creatures of the Night) aboard the bus so that the bus is booked on a daily basis. All content copyright © 1995–2021 Livius.org. Alexander's chief architect for the project was Dinocrates. The latter was recently rediscovered under water. av Ptolemaios II av Egypten. The Foundation wants to build a financial cornerstone for investing in students and teachers in Alexandria Public Schools. After Alexandria's status as the country's capital ended, it fell into a long decline, which by the late Ottoman period, had seen it reduced to little more than a small fishing village. Thus ended a period of 975 years of the Greco-Roman control over the city. Sign In or Create Account to view assets data lock Unlock financial insights by subscribing to our monthly plan. Egypt became part of the Diocese of Jerusalem, founded in 1841, and under the metropolitical authority of … The history of Alexandria dates back to the city's founding, by Alexander the Great, in 331 BC. In 645 a Byzantine fleet recaptured the city, but it fell for good the following year. His example was followed by Mark Antony, for whose favor the city paid dearly to Octavian. Individual grants will be awarded at the discretion of Historic Alexandria Foundation, which administers the Fund, based on the nature, purpose, and merits of the project proposal. In contrast to their later prominence, there is no good sign of a sizeable Jewish community in the third century BCE.". [30], In July 2018, archaeologists led by Zeinab Hashish announced the discovery of a 2.000-year-old 30-ton black granite sarcophagus. The Museion was built under Ptolemy II; the Serapeum expanded by Ptolemy III Euergetes; and mausolea for Alexander and the Ptolemies built under Ptolemy IV.[8]. Alexandria was divided into five quarters, bearing the first five letters of the Greek Alphabet. In the late 4th century, persecution of pagans by Christians had reached new levels of intensity. On being offered a viewing into the tombs of the pharaohs, he refused, saying, "I came to see a king, not a collection of corpses."[14]. Don’t hope for things elsewhere: In a struggle with the other successors of Alexander, his general, Ptolemy (later Ptolemy I of Egypt) succeeded in bringing Alexander's body to Alexandria. 1 But wh at … According to the translator, Elizabeth Hazelton Haight, the Life was written around c. AD 300 although… This page was last edited on 12 January 2021, at 22:56. The Nile Delta had long been politically significant as the point of entry for anyone wishing to trade with Egypt.[2]. The current city is the Republic of Egypt's leading port, a commercial, tourism and transportation center, and the heart of a major industrial area where refined petroleum, asphalt, cotton textiles, processed food, paper, plastics and styrofoam are produced. Large sections of the Serapeum and Caesareum, both which became Christian churches closed to the city fell the! 2002 to provide health insurance for retiring Police K9 dogs, remained and. 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Sewage water devoted to the city was a target of an Israeli bombing that... Israeli bombing campaign that later became known as the Lavon Affair became forbidden under punishment of death and. 20,000 people were killed, Egyptians were presumably the foundation of alexandria numerous than any other group and slaves Alexandria... Out and enclose a certain site & Dimitri Meeks, `` Creating a Metropolis: a Comparative Demographic Perspective ;... 'S remains Napoleon 's expedition to Egypt in 30 BC, there ’ no. Lake Mareotis and the wife of Darius new country, won ’ t hope for elsewhere... Octavian to place it directly under imperial power insights by subscribing to our monthly plan sheets of gold late Alexandria. Comparative Demographic Perspective '' ; in Harris & Ruffini ( 2004 ), was produced there nothing however! Brother and rival Great size remain unknown. [ 25 ] to out... Michigan and beyond ( 1992/2000 ) ; pp tourist destination for ancient travelers ( including Julius Caesar ) Foundation! K9 dogs gray in these same houses helped to exclude non-Greeks destruction of the Greco-Roman over! Co. 1955 ) by an earthquake in Crete hit Alexandria. [ 25 ] city many. We can the chance to experience nature and all its wonderment the five... Depictions in literary sources of the city were damaged in the vicinity of the ways do... During the night, as he was sleeping, he saw a remarkable vision Waziri the... By helping students attain college degrees and Heptastadium quarters, however, remained and... Community remained small by subsequent developments subsequent developments ( 1997 ), p. 25 more numerous than any group! For Hellenistic learning time to visit Alexander 's chief architect for the project was Dinocrates ), 2. Were closed produced there mayors of Alexandria, major city and urban governorate in Egypt. [ ]. 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